Quantum Measurement

Oxford Instruments offer a wide range of low-temperature measurement solutions to enable these complex measurements. This not only includes robust cold environment solutions but also enable a wide variety of electronic optical and magnetic field measurements through our long history of technology expertise in cryogenics, superconducting magnets and complex quantum measurements,

Quantum measurements are widely used in characterising new materials and devices for emerging quantum technology applications such as quantum information processing (QIP), quantum computing (QC) and quantum sensing. Such devices hold the potential to revolutionise future technology in high-performance computing and sensing in the same way that semiconductors and the transistor did over half a century ago.

Whilst quantum effects are typically prevalent only at extremely small scales and dominate the interactions between individual atoms, physicists are now working towards enabling these effects at larger scale, working towards mesoscale devices. Ultra-low temperatures close to absolute zero are required in these devices to reduce thermal noise and reveal the hidden quantum states. Quantum measurements themselves are used to characterise the properties of these devices and cover a wide range of techniques, from spectroscopy to electrical properties.

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Quantum measurement solutions for Quantum Transport

Quantum transport measurements such as the quantum Hall effect (QHE) and fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) in two-dimensional electron gases (2DEG) and topological insulators – along with a range of other more complex measurements – inform researchers on material properties with ultimate precision leading to primary standards.

Oxford Instruments Teslatron and Proteox systems can meet the key requirements for these measurements, providing a low temperature, high field, low noise environment.

Oxford Instruments TeslatronPT for quantum transport

Oxford Instruments ProteoxMX for quantum transport

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Quantum measurement solutions for Quantum Hall Effect

The Quantum Hall Effect (QHE) is a quantum-mechanical version of the Hall effect, observed in two-dimensional electron systems subjected to low temperatures and strong magnetic fields. Hall resistance typically increases linearly with field, but for 2D materials at sufficiently low temperatures and high field, the Hall effect is quantised. Physicists have long used standard electrical transport measurements such as resistivity, conductance, and the Hall effect to gain information on the electronic properties and structure of materials. Resistance measured through the QHE now forms the measurement standard, due to the exceptional accuracy which can be achieved through the integer quantised states.

The resolution with which the quantised Hall states can be determined is dependent on the electron temperature of the material, with lower electron temperatures resulting in higher resolution. An ultra-low temperature environment is necessary to reduce sample electron temperatures, and superconducting magnets are required to produce the strong magnetic fields at which this effect is observable.

Integrate Nanonis Tramea with our Teslatron and Proteox product lines for a fully measurement-ready solution.

Simultaneous multi-functionality

Nanonis Tramea is an advanced measurement solution, which combines the functionality of several different single-purpose instruments into a single, high-performance, compact, fully software-controlled package. The system seamlessly interacts with our MercuryiTC temperature control and MercuryiPS magnet power supply electronics, meaning you can control your magnet, cryostat temperature and your experimental routines all in one place.

Nanonis Tramea offers functionality of the following dedicated instruments:

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Quantum measurement solutions for Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

The Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE) expands upon the Quantum Hall Effect through measurement of precisely quantised states at fractional values, which can be associated to quasi-particle formation within a topological feature, or low-dimensional material.

These measurement techniques are leading the way towards discovery of exotic quasi-particles such as Majorana Fermions and Fibonacci particles, which have the potential to power the next generation of Quantum computers. These topological qubits would store quantum information non-locally, reducing the impact of environmental noise, and promising significant increases in coherence times for future quantum devices.

To access fractional quantum states requires extreme conditions of ultra-low temperature and high magnetic field. To ensure the lowest sample temperature for these sensitive measurements, it is necessary to minimise the eddy current heating caused by the vibration of metallic materials in the high field region. 

The Oxford Instruments Proteox dilution refrigerator provides the millikelvin temperatures and high magnetic fields required to access these sensitive phenomena. The platform has been designed from concept for low vibration, with displacement amplitudes of significantly less than 1 µm amplitude from the standard system frame which eliminate the requirement for active damping solutions.

Additional options for maximising sensitivity for FQHE measurements:

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